Bitcoin is a digital asset and a payment system invented by Satoshi Nakamoto who published a related paper in 2008 and released it as open-source software in 2009. The system featured as peer-to-peer; users can transact directly without an intermediary. Transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain. The ledger uses bitcoin as its unit of account. The system works without a central repository or single administrator, which has led the U.S. Treasury to categorize bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed. Bitcoin is more correctly described as the first decentralized digital currency. It is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value by now.
Bitcoins are created as a reward for payment processing work in which users offer their computing power to verify and record payments into a public ledger. This activity is called mining and miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins. Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. Users can send and receive bitcoins for an optional transaction fee.
Bitcoin proposes a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property.
This enables developers to create markets, store registries of debts or promises, move funds in accordance with instructions given long in the past (like a will or a futures contract) and many other things that have not been invented yet, all without a middle man or counterparty risk. The project was bootstrapped via an ether presale in August 2014 by fans all around the world. It is developed by the Ethereum Foundation, a Swiss nonprofit, with contributions from great minds across the globe.
The intent of Ethereum is to create an alternative protocol for building decentralized applications, providing a different set of tradeoffs that we believe will be very useful for a large class of decentralized applications, with particular emphasis on situations where rapid development time, security for small and rarely used applications, and the ability of different applications to very efficiently interact, are important. Ethereum does this by building what is essentially the ultimate abstract foundational layer: a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language, allowing anyone to write smart contracts and decentralized applications where they can create their own arbitrary rules for ownership, transaction formats and state transition functions. A bare-bones version of Namecoin can be written in two lines of code, and other protocols like currencies and reputation systems can be built in under twenty. Smart contracts, cryptographic "boxes" that contain value and only unlock it if certain conditions are met, can also be built on top of the platform, with vastly more power than that offered by Bitcoin scripting because of the added powers of Turing-completeness, value-awareness, blockchain-awareness and state.
RippleNet delivers a single, frictionless experience for global payments. Rather than a constellation of disparate technologies, unstandardized communications, and centralized networks, RippleNet is a single, global network of banks that send and receive payments via Ripple's distributed financial technology providing real-time messaging, clearing and settlement of transactions.
RippleNet is a decentralized network based on an agreement between Ripple and network participants all of which utilize the same technology and adhere to a consistent set of payment rules and standards.
RippleNet banks benefit from the robust connectivity, standardized technology, and rich data attachments with each payment. Ripple's distributed financial technology outperforms today's infrastructure by driving down costs, increasing processing speeds and delivering end-to-end visibility into payment fees, timing, and delivery.
XRP is the native currency of the Ripple network that only exists within the Ripple system. XRP are currently divisible to 6 decimal places, and the smallest unit is called a drop with 1 million drops equaling 1 XRP. There were 100 billion XRP created at Ripple's inception, with no more allowed to be created according to the protocol's rules. As such, the system was designed so XRP is a scarce asset with decreasing available supply. Not dependent on any third party for redemption, XRP is the only currency in the Ripple network that does not entail counterparty risk, and it is the only native digital asset. The other currencies in the Ripple network are debt instruments (i.e. liabilities) and exist in the form of balances. Users of the Ripple network are not required to use XRP as a store of value or a medium of exchange. Each Ripple account is required, however, to have a small reserve of 20 XRP (US$6.58 as of May 16, 2017).
TrueUSD is a stablecoin backed by USD. Collateralized by USD, it can be exchanged with and trusted by multiple banking partners in legally protected escrow accounts.
Fetch.AI is a decentralised digital representation of the real world in which autonomous software agents perform useful economic work. This means that they can perform tasks, such as delivering data or providing services, and are rewarded with a digital currency for their efforts Ã¢â‚¬â€ the Fetch.AI Token. Their world is organised in multiple useful dimensions, not just geographically; safety, decision points and other economic factors all form ways in which agents can view the space that they inhabit.
The Fetch.AI protocol and network can be considered a method of connecting agents with value to those that need Ã¢â‚¬â€œ or might need Ã¢â‚¬â€œ that value. It is the missing search-and-discovery for digital entities, allowing intelligent, autonomous agents to find each other effectively in a world that is designed for them, but interfaces seamlessly into the real world. It provides a new, economic Internet for the machine-to-machine economy, removing friction and acting as a disintermediation mechanism to increase efficiency and utilisation.
Litecoin (LTC ) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Creation and transfer of coins is based on an open source cryptographic protocol and is not managed by any central authority. While inspired by, and in most regards technically nearly identical to Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin has some technical improvements over Bitcoin, and most other major cryptocurrencies, such as the adoption of Segregated Witness, and the Lightning Network. These effectively allow a greater amount of transactions to be processed by the network in a given time, reducing potential bottlenecks, as seen with Bitcoin. Litecoin also has almost zero payment cost and facilitates payments approximately four times faster than Bitcoin.
BNB runs natively on the Ethereum blockchain and follows the ERC20 token standard. The BNB token was established with a total supply of 200 million. Binance plans to use 20% of our profits each quarter to buy back and burn BNB, until 50% of the total BNB supply (100 million BNB) is burned.
Holo (HOT) is the first step toward a decentralized hosting ecosystem. Holochain enables a distributed web with user autonomy built directly into its architecture and protocols. Data is about remembering our lived and shared experiences. Distributing the storage and processing of that data can change how we coordinate and interact. With digital integration under user control, Holochain liberates our online lives from corporate control over our choices and information.
Digitex Futures Token
The Digitex Futures Token (DGTX) is a protocol token that has real world utility and value. Its value derives directly from its utility as a vehicle for the commission-free trading of liquid futures contracts on the price of Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin against the US Dollar. As more traders are attracted to the commission-free markets of the Digitex Futures Exchange, demand for DGTX tokens will increase. Increasing demand for DGTX tokens from traders who are attracted to commission-free futures markets will outweigh the inflationary cost of minting a small number of new tokens each year.
TokenPay (Symbol: TPAY) is a decentralized and self-verifying payment platform project. Based entirely on mathematics it is designed to enable secure transactions between multiple parties. With maximum user security as the focal point, the system is accessed exclusively through the encrypted Tor Browser. Transactions are conducted with its own proprietary and untraceable digital asset called TPAY that is embedded with the latest and most advanced safety features. These characteristics include a stealth addressing system, encrypted messaging, completely anonymous trading and a uniquely designed hashing algorithm that enables fast and secure confirmations under any conditions.